Introduction of Computer And History of Computer | | कंप्यूटर का परिचय | | और कंप्यूटर का इतिहास | | Generation of Computer | |

                                     | | Generation of Computer | |

In this chapter we will discuss about History of computer, Generation of computer, Input/output device, storage device, hardware and software, language basic operation, Multimedia and Entertainment…!

What is Computer 

Computer is an electronic device which is capable of recovering data and  performing a sequence of operation in according / accordance with a predetermined but variable set of procedural instruction (program) to produce a result in the form of information or signals..!

Types of Computer :  Computer has been categorized in the following parts likewise…………..! 

  • Analog Computer 
  • Digital Computer
  • Hybrid Computer 

Analog Computer  :- Analog Computer are used mostly in Medical Science. This very kind of  Computer work on continuous data values, for e.g. if you have to calculate the pressure or something similar then kind of technology having will be useful…..! 

This is a Analog Computer 

Digital Computer :-  Digital Computer are the most commonly used computer on a digital technique which is widely used and preferred now-a-days. this kind o computers uses micro processor Technology which is quite digital and able to calculate and execute million of instruction within in second. This also comes under kind of categories as we can see downwards…..!   

  1. Micro Computer:- The Processor is very small so that called Micro processor and device is called Micro Computer. Micro Computer is single user device example.. Desktop, Laptop, Palmtop, Notebook, PDA, ETC….!
  2. Mini Computer :- The processor of mini Computer is small but larger than Micro processor Mini Computer multi user device generally used in designing company for commercial use….!
  3. Mainframe :- It has larger processor and multiuser device. Number of users is more than Maini Computer. This is multiuser and multitasking device mostly used in Metrology…
  4. Super Computer :- The processor is biggest than other Computer and processing capacity is highest than other device. It is Multi user fastest calculating device, generally used in nuclear science for calculating purpose.. 

  5. CRAY-I is the Super Computer. India’s First Super Computer is PARAM-10000…    

 #  Hybrid Computer  The kind of computer comes with both characteristic (Digital and analog) are called hybrid. This is used there where it needs to calculate both the digital and analog data e.g  In hospital…        

Hybrid Computer
Hybrid Computer 

History of Computer :- 
History of Computer can be considered from arise of human culture as person known the calculate, they used to some thing for this purpose like, pebbles, stone etc.. but as a device Roman’s abacus is first device used in B.C for calculate.. In A.D various mechanical device were invented for the calculation like Pascaline by Blaise Pascale, Joseph Jacquard invented loom that is programmed using punched cards, 

and (Charles Babbage) invented  two machines Analytical engine and Different engine punched cards, and Hollerith’s Census Machines (Tabulating Machine). Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) is a fully digital electronics devices used for liner equation. 

Howard Aiken (IBM)  had designed Mark I, the first operational general-purpose electro- mechanical Computer. John Mauchley and Pres per Eckert make the Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator (ENIAC) First generally purpose, digital electronic Computer used to compute a ballistic firing. 

Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVACI), was the first commercially successful Computer. Two Era arise Mechanical Era (Before 1945) having mechanical devices and the Electronics Era (From1945 ) having electronics processing technology. Electronics Era is Divided into Four Generation….      

Generation Of Computer :-  Computer  are divided in these forms of generation. Here the generations have been described time wise as well as technologies used…!

  • First Generation (1945-1954):-  In this very first generation of computers, it had been used Vacuum tube technology which makes a computer possible to do calculation…

Second Generation (1955-1964) :- In this  generation segment of computers, it had been used Transistors which made a computer a little concise and faster to do the same…

  • Third Generation (1965-1974) :-  In the third generation of computers, it had been used Integrated circuits which made this faster comparatively and reliable as well…

Fourth Generation (1975-Till Date) : In this generation of computer, there had been used micro processors inside to work far better comparatively. This is the most reliable among and very concise in size to be portable anywhere you want…

  • Fifth Generation (Present and Next) :- This is the generation of computer where computers are assigned automatic intelligence: they use artificial intelligence where they will use their own iQ tooo to solve a problem at end….!

Sabhi Generation Ke Computer 

Characteristics of Computers :-  Characteristics of Computer are likely to be defined or tell the capability of computer….

  • Speed:-  Computer can carry out instruction in less than a millionth of a second .  As you know computer can work very  fast.. It takes only few second for calculation that we take hour to complete.. 
  • You will be surprised to known that computer can perform millions (1,000,000) of instruction and even more per second…

  • Accuracy :-  Computer can do the calculation without errors and very accurately. the degree of accuracy of computer is very high and every calculation is performed with the same accuracy. 
  • The accuracy level  is determined on the basis of design of computer. The errors in computer are due to human and inaccurate data..

  • Diligence :- Computer are capable of performing any task given to them repetitively A computer is free from tiredness, lack of concentration, weakness, etc.. It can work for hours without creating any error. 
  • If millions of calculating are to this performed, a computer will perform every calculations with the same accuracy. De to this capability it overpowers human being in routine type of work..

  • Storage Capacity :-   Computer can store large volume of data and information on magnetic media. The Computer has an in-built memory where it can store a large amount of data . 
  • You can also store data in secondary storage devices such as floppies, optical disks, which can be kept outside your computer and can be carried to other computer…!

  • Versatility :-   Computer are versatile: they perform multiple different tasks at the same time or eg. Playing music and drafting your document and even you can print a page. 
  • It means the capacity to perform completely different type o work. You use your computer to prepare payroll slips. next moment you may use it for inventory management or to prepare electronics bills….!

Basic application of Computer :-   Computer is very useful in our days working. The  basic application of computer are :-

Word Processing:- Word Processing software help us to do our day to day work smoothly like letter typing, making resume etc.. it automatically corrects spelling and grammar If the content of a document repeats you don’t have to type it each time. 

You can format your document on which you are working according to your requirement as you can select font size increase the font size and you can do Bold, Italic and Underline the font size you are using in your document. 

By using cut, copy and paste feature you can do your work quickly…..! 
In Banking :- Now-a-days Net Banking is become popular. Most of the people do their banking work by using Net Banking.. 

You can transfer money from one account to another account by using Net Banking easily. You Will see that daily transaction in Banks are carried out with the help of Computer…! 

Internet :- You can connect your computer to any computer anywhere Either in India or abroad. It is a global system to interconnected computer network. It begun in 1970’s and 1980’s. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. 

You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-mail you can communicate with a person sitting thousand of miles away in second . 

Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man. A meeting can be organized across the city, across the country through video conferencing….  

Hospital :- You will see that the records of patient related to name o patient, Disease diagnosis etc. are stored in computer. By one click doctors knows about patient history….

 Digital video or audio composition :-    Computer makes easy Audio or video composition and editing any types of Audios/Videos films. You can special effect in science fiction and action movies are created using computer…! 

Communication:-  You will aware about video calling chatting, e-mail etc.. Computer let people communication with each other through chatting, video calling, E-learning etc…..

Desktop publishing :-   Desktop publishing is the useful package for a common man, Now a days computer extensively used in desktop publishing for designing o books, greating card marrage…………! 

Telecommunications :-   In telecommunication you will see mobile phones have software embedded in them for maintaining customer details. Now-a-days you can any location and known how to reach that location.. 

you can reserve your Air/Railways ticket on mobile phones.. You can known the PNR status of your Railways Ticket by Sending SMS….. 
Apart form above computer are also using in Defence, E-learning Medical Science, Playing game Certificate , ATM Machine, Robot, News, Weather Analysis ETC…          

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